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3GPP Enhancements Planned for 5G Release 17 Include RedCap, Coverage Improvements, Satellite Standar

With 3GPP’s first release of the 5G NR (New Radio) standard (i.e. release 15) being commercialized, along with 3GPP’s July 2020 competition of Release 16, IoT professionals and others in the wireless industry are now looking at what updates are in the works for the next release of the 5G cellular wireless technology standard, Release 17. In particular, they are considering how Release 17’s new Reduced Capability (RedCap) device– sometimes referred to as NR Light – as well as its coverage improvements and new support for satellite communication standards might impact their long-term IoT business strategies.

Gus Vos, Chief Scientist for Technology Standards at Sierra Wireless, has been participating in 3GPP 5G standards meetings for years, working to ensure updates to the standards address the needs of IoT professionals and the IoT market. We recently talked to Gus about the 3GPP RedCap work item and other updates planned for 5G Release 17 that IoT professionals might want to keep an eye on.

Q: What are the updates in 5G Release 17 that you think will have the biggest impact on the IoT market? 

A: Right now, I think the work being done on 3GPP’s newly approved RedCap work item will have the biggest impact on the IoT market over the next five years. The 3GPP standards group agreed in December 2020 to include it in 5G Release 17. 

Q: What are 3GPP’s objectives with the RedCap work item? 

A: The basic idea behind the RedCap work item is to define a new, less complex NR device for higher end IoT applications that offers faster data transmission speeds than Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) technologies like Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and LTE Machine Type Communication (LTE-M), while being much less expensive (though with slower speeds) than the multi-gigabit NR devices being deployed today. 

To be very clear, a RedCap device specification is not designed to replace NB-IoT or LTE-M – 3GPP will continue to support these technology standards for IoT LPWA applications that need to be very low cost, with low power consumption, wide coverage, and high capacity (the 4Cs of LPWA).  

nb iot modules

5G Release 17

In addition, the Redcap work item will strive to only make specification changes that will not require 5G base station (gNB) hardware changes and while providing RedCap devices with the same coverage as multi-gigabit NR devices, so no new cell sites will be required. The goal is to make Redcap devices easy to deploy, as mobile network operators (MNOs) will be able to provide connectivity to these devices via software upgrades to their existing NR network infrastructure.  

Q: Why will RedCap devices cost less than other NR devices? 

A: The overall idea is to design RedCap devices in a way that removes some of the bells and whistles of higher performance NR devices. By removing these bells and whistles, the RedCap study captured in 3GPP Technical Report (TR) 38.875 identified a potential cost reduction of approximately 3X (or a 65% reduction), assuming the NR devices were single band. However, since most commercial NR devices typically support more than 15 bands, we can expect the real-world cost reduction from RedCap to be larger than this. 

For example, I estimate RedCap simplifications will reduce costs at a rate closer to 6X, with costs reductions even reaching 8X over the long term, when power amplifiers and flash storage start to be integrated into single chip designs. Of course, in engineering nothing comes for free, and using RedCap will result in some performance drawbacks -- especially speed. Another drawback will be higher cost per bit due a degradation in spectral efficiency since the RedCap devices will support fewer MIMO layers and fewer antennas than regular NR devices. These and other drawbacks will limit the use cases for RedCap devices. For example, it will be difficult to use RedCap devices for some new 5G enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) applications that require very high data speeds and send a lot of data per month. 

One of the ways in which RedCap reduces the cost of devices is that it enables companies to build devices with Half-Duplex Frequency Division Duplex (HD-FDD) communications. Unlike Full-Duplex FDD (FD-FDD) communications, where a device and cellular base station can transmit data to each other at the same time, with HD-FDD only the device or the cellular base station can transmit data at a specific time. Although HD-FDD can reduce data transmission speeds, it greatly simplifies (and thus reduces the cost) of the Radio Frequency (RF) design of multi-band RedCap devices.

3GPP has also agreed to reduce the cost of RedCap devices in others ways, including allowing them to use just one antenna for FDD bands (down from two), two antennas for most Time Division Duplex (TDD) bands (down from four) and by reducing their minimum bandwidth to 20 MHz (down from 100 MHz). The RedCap specification further reduces costs by not requiring support for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), and by lowering the required downlink modulation to 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) (down from 256 QAM). 

All these changes will reduce the cost of RedCap devices, while also reducing their data transmission speeds and other performance capabilities. For example, for the simplest and least expensive RedCap variant, the peak speed will be around 35 Megabits per second (Mbps). Meanwhile for the most complex and expensive RedCap variant the peak speed will be around 170 Mbps. Both these speeds are much lower than the peak speeds of commercial NR devices, which today typically support peak rates of 5 gigabits per second (Gbps). However, RedCap devices’ peak data transfer speeds will be much faster than LTE-M Cat-M1 and NB-IoT Cat-NB2 devices, which in release 17 will have peak rates of 1,800 kilobits per second (kbps) and 250 kbps respectively.

Q: Will RedCap Devices be able to connect to LTE Networks?

A: A single mode RedCap device will not be able to connect to an LTE network which is why, at least initially, we will likely see RedCap devices be dual mode, supporting both LTE and NR technologies. 

These dual mode devices will still be able to connect to wireless cellular networks even in areas with little to no NR coverage by using existing LTE networks for connectivity.

However, making a RedCap device dual-mode comes with a price. These devices will need to be FD-FDD since LTE is full-duplex. This, along with the need to include LTE in these devices, will make them more complex (and therefore more expensive) than NR-only RedCap devices. 

Given the fact that NR coverage is likely to be extensive by 2023 in most cities and other populated areas, if you know that your device is going to be used in areas like this with strong NR coverage, you should consider using a single mode NR-only RedCap device.

Q: What other benefits do you think companies might be able to realize by using RedCap rather than LTE? 

A: As mentioned above, adding a HD-FDD capability to NR is included in the RedCap work item’s objectives, and this HD-FDD capability will allow RedCap devices to be simpler, and thus less expensive to manufacture. However, this HD-FDD capability will also allow companies to build smaller devices and provide them other cost benefits as well. 

For example, HD-FDD will enable RedCap devices to easily and cost effectively support lots of FDD bands, unlike LTE devices which do not support HD-FDD. This is because HD-FDD RedCap devices, unlike FD-FDD devices, will not need expensive duplexers. 

Currently with LTE devices, (which are full duplex) companies that want to lower the cost and size of their devices by removing duplexers from them, can only do so by lowering the number of bands supported by these devices. This forces them to have different device types or stock-keeping units (SKU) with different band combinations for different locations, because they have to have one device SKU for a region that uses certain bands, and other devices SKUs for other regions using other bands. All these different device SKUs increase their logistical costs. 

RedCap’s ability to use HD-FDD to support lots of FDD bands in a cost-effective way makes it possible for companies to have one global SKU for these devices without adding duplexers to them. This will help them simplify device procurement, manufacturing, and inventory management, as well as their customers’ worldwide IoT device deployments. 

In addition, because RedCap HD-FDD devices do not need duplexers, these devices have the potential for higher silicon integration than LTE devices and high-performance NR devices. Duplexers are surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, and are made using a piezo-electric substrate, which prevents them from being integrated into semiconductor-based chipsets. This means that HD-FDD RedCap devices are likely to have smaller form factors than current LTE and high-performance NR devices, as duplexers take up a lot of space. 

Moreover, since the integration of the power amplifier and the removal of the duplexer will lower RF insertion loss, RedCap HD-FDD devices will use less power than LTE and high-performance NR devices. However, since it is unlikely large-scale silicon integration will occur in the first generation of RedCap chipsets, these power consumption and size advantages are probably more than 5 years away.

Q: What IoT use cases do you think RedCap might be particularly well-suited for?

A: RedCap is a good alternative for companies with IoT applications that might otherwise use LTE, because NB-IoT and LTE-M do not offer them the speed required for their application, while higher performance NR technologies are too expensive and provide them with more performance than they really need. 

Specifically, RedCap would be good for IoT applications that use devices integrated into watches, clothes, and other wearables. It might also be a good choice for lower-cost tablets, routers, and other devices for IoT applications that need a bit more speed than LPWA technologies, but not all the performance advantages of NR.

RedCap will also benefit manufacturers, utilities, logistics firms and other companies with private NR networks who are considering the deployment of IoT applications that require higher data transmission speeds than LTE-M and NB-IoT can provide, but not the speed of high-performance NR devices. RedCap allows these organizations to lower their private network costs by using less expensive RedCap devices, rather than high-performance NR devices, for these IoT applications. 

Q: Outside of RedCap, what other updates is the 3GPP 5G standards group working on for 5G Release 17 that IoT professionals should be award of?

A: 3GPP has agreed on a few updates to LTE-M and NB-IoT devices, with the main update increasing these devices’ peak data rates. Although the work is not yet finalized, LTE-M peak speeds should increase to approximately 1,200 kbps download (DL) and 1,800 kbps upload (UL), while NB-IoT peak speeds should increase to 250 kbps DL and 220 kbps UL. 

3GPP is also continuing to make specification changes designed to lower power consumption for NR devices. In release 17, 3GPP is focusing on use cases in which NR devices send small amounts of data, with specifications defining new procedures for the usage of pre-configured UL resources, as well as a shortened initial access procedure.

3GPP also just agreed in Dec 2020, to make specification changes to improve coverage for NR. The 3GPP study, captured in TR 38.830, found that NR’s UL channels are bottlenecks to coverage. Therefore, 3GPP agreed to develop and specify several improvements to the UL NR data and UL NR control channels. Although this work is not yet finalized, these UL coverage improvements should add 5-6 decibels (dBs) of additional coverage to NR.  

In addition, though it is still in the early stages, another exciting thing 3GPP is looking at for 5G Release 17 is a standards changes to NR, LTE-M, and NB-IoT that would make it possible for satellites to use these technologies for Non-Terrestrial Network (NTN) communications. The deployment of satellites that support NR, LTE-M, and NB-IoT would deliver huge increases in coverage, which would be useful for IoT applications that need to connect to equipment in remote areas -- in the middle of a jungle, desert, or arctic tundra -- hundreds of miles away from a cellular base station. 

In addition, the recent drastic drop in the cost to launch low earth satellites, drop in the cost of these small low-earth satellites themselves, and low cost for LTE-M and NB-IoT edge devices, has made the overall cost structure for NTN services much lower than it was in the past. These lower costs, in combination with 3GPP’s new NTN standards, would make possible the deployment of new IoT applications that were previously cost-prohibitive or otherwise simply not possible before – including environmental monitoring applications that use large numbers of low cost, low power IoT devices to help track the impact of climate change. 

Q:  When do you currently expect all these updates to be finalized, and the 3GPP 5G standards group to freeze 5G Release 17? 

A: The COVID-19 pandemic has led 3GPP to move out the schedule for 5G Release 17 nine months in total. Given this change, right now 3GPP is planning on freezing the 5G Release 17 in March of 2022. 

Q: Given this timing, when can we expect to see commercial products introduced reflecting the updates in 5G Release 17?

A: I expect we'll see new products hit the market reflecting 5G Release 17’s enhancements as soon as mid-2023.

Q: What do you see as the key takeaways for IoT professionals as the work on 5G Release 17 moves forward?

A: I think the key takeaway is that 3GPP is not only trying to push cellular data transmission speeds to their limit, but is also looking at other ways it can expand the use of cellular communications for IoT applications. Whether it is the development of RedCap for mid-performance IoT applications, other performance enhancements to NB-IoT and LTE-M, or the development of NR, LTE-M, and NB-IoT standards for NTN communications, 3GPP is working to ensure that the world continues to build out the cellular connectivity technology companies need for IoT applications that transform how they do business.  

Start with Sierra to learn more about how cellular technologies like NR, LTE-M, NB-IoT, and RedCap can help you unlock value in the connected economy. 

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Publicerat klockan 05:41, den 8 februari 2021
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Reducing surgical site infection: Preoperative hair removal

Clipping not shaving the surgical site is the third in a series of intervention guidelines[1] developed by the Health Quality & Safety Commission’s national Surgical Site Infection Improvement (SSII) Programme, led by Auckland and Canterbury district health boards (DHBs).


A surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection that develops as a result of a surgical procedure. SSIs are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stays and increased health care costs. The SSII Programme aims to reduce SSIs following hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and will focus on reducing SSIs following selected cardiac procedures over the next year. Preoperative hair removal by any means is associated with increased SSI rates[2]. According to World Health Organization guidelines[3] hair should not be removed unless it interferes with the surgical procedure. If hair removal is required, the evidence supports the use of clippers, which cut the hair close to the patient’s skin, for all sites.


The use of razors (shaving) prior to surgery has been shown to increase the incidence of SSI when compared to clipping, depilatory use or no hair removal at all. Shaving results in epidermal micro-trauma and bacterial colonisation which is associated with a higher risk of wound infection[4]. Clipping rather than shaving when hair removal is necessary improves the safety and quality of care that patients receive. The clipping not shaving guidelines recommend that hair removal using electric clippers should occur as close to the time of the surgical procedure as possible. Ideally this should be done outside the operating room to minimise the dispersal of loose hair and the potential for contamination of the sterile field or surgical wound.


Patients can also be engaged in reducing their risk of wound infection through education on appropriate hair removal[5]. Advice to ‘leave the clipping to us’ can be incorporated into preoperative discussion and patient information on preoperative skin preparation (see for example the Open for better care patient information brochure Preventing infection after surgery[6]). From October 2013 to March 2014, to complement the work being carried out by the SSII programme, the Open for better care campaign has promoted a bundle of interventions, with a particular focus on one each month: November 2013: SSI surveillance December 2013: Correct use of prophylactic antibiotics January/February 2014: Using appropriate skin preparation before surgery March 2014: Clipping not shaving the surgical site.

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Publicerat klockan 04:11, den 29 januari 2021
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What dramatic changes are taking place in university education? What will the university of the futu

I. Original title: What are the dramatic changes that are taking place in university education?

Disruptive and innovative technologies are providing the trigger for the development of dramatic changes.

The emergence of Internet-based mobile learning, flipped classrooms and blended learning, as well as massive open online courses (MOOCs) and online microprofessions, is beginning to have a huge impact on traditional university education.

Knowledge can be leveraged with disruptive and innovative technologies that are developing a more flattened distribution at a lower cost and faster pace. With the escalation of Internet technologies, automation of knowledge-based work and cloud technologies, such changes have been concentrated and potentially stormy in the last two years.

Will they bring a disruptive revolution to the development of today's universities?

San Francisco, California-based Melova University began enrolling in 2014 and has attracted global attention in higher education. The university's founder, Nelson, wants to disrupt modern university education.

best university in hong kong

The main feature of this innovative American university is to cut down the university experience and keep only the part of education that really works for students. Massive lecture classes, tenure-track chairs, Gothic architecture, rugby, walled Ivy League campuses…… these are almost all standard features of traditional university campuses have been abandoned.

The same as the MOOC, it is also taught using a proprietary online platform; but the difference is that it is not open to the general public, but carries out small seminar-style teaching, and prohibits lecture classes, with a class size cap of 19 people. Each of the four years of the university will be spent studying and living in major cities with different future global developments such as Berlin, Hong Kong, New York and London, giving students the experience of economic globalization that they really need to have themselves. This university model challenges the traditional university model to its limits: can a university still be called a university without faculty offices, research laboratories, a fixed campus, space for student associations, and full-time research professors?

While the university is quietly changing, a new debate has begun about what education should be: what does it mean to be "educational"?

But what will almost certainly happen is that in 20 years the classrooms of top universities will look more and more like the classrooms of Minerva - professors and students will be geographically separated, and the nature of the student-teacher relationship will be changed by the mediation of technology.

What will the university of the future look like?

Along the window opened by disruptive technologies, some futurists are beginning to plan the future of the university.

University campuses will be transformed, with smaller and smaller physical campus areas relative to the number of students.

In terms of the number of students they can accommodate, universities will get bigger and bigger thanks to Internet technologies and the optimization of mobile learning.

At the same time, the facilities and resources of universities will be open and shared with the public ;

Library resources will be digitized.

The university organizational chart may be redrawn, some traditional university positions may no longer exist, and some new positions will be created as needed. Learning may gradually be separated from the classroom, and professors will be expected to declare their independence, working not just for one school but for multiple institutions; printed textbooks as we now know them will gradually, if at all, disappear; university degree certification will shift to accreditation of programs; and the influence of degrees on jobs will gradually diminish as future students are faced with a host of faster, cheaper The choice of "academic" documents ...... From the recent discussions on the future development of universities based on modern educational technologies, it can be summarized that the university of the future will have the following characteristics.

Publicerat klockan 04:50, den 24 december 2020
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat och taggat som redrawn,


近視能不能進行治療?多少度才會通過遺傳?真相近視在這裏 吳京 李曉姍天下父母愛子心切,都希望自己的孩子能夠健康成長,不戴眼鏡,然而大多數家長對近視並沒有一個正確的認識。

關於近視眼的那些真相 近視能不能治療?多少度才會遺傳?真相近視在這裏

事實一: 真正的近視不能通過藥物或其他物理手段來恢復   臨床上近視(近視眼)是指眼睛在調節放鬆時,平行光線通過眼的屈光系統折後點落在視網膜之前的一種屈光狀態。

假性近視是指通過阿托品眼藥水點眼散瞳後近視度數消失,變成正視或遠視;而真性近視採用阿托品點眼後近視度數未降低或降低度數小於50度。 假性近視是一種功能性改變,它可以通過藥物治療和合理的眼部衛生習慣來糾正,而真正的近視已經出現了眼球結構的變化,眼球的前後直徑變長。 通過藥物或其他物理方法恢復是不可能的。

所以市面上很多企業打著各種問題能夠治癒近視的藥物進行廣告,不過市麵上有不同近視控製或矯視眼鏡產品選擇,家長除了比較彼此功效差異,還要多考慮其可靠性。 家長們需要不斷提高警惕。 近視能不能治療?多少度才會遺傳?真相近視在這裏

事實二: 高度近視有一定的遺傳傾向 近視主要由以下兩個因素決定。

你好!研究認為高度近視眼的雙親家庭,下一代近視的發病率較高,近視眼具有一定的遺傳傾向已被公認,對高度近視更是如此。 環境在近視的形成中起著關鍵性的作用,比如用眼距離過近、用眼時間過長、照明光線過強或過弱、在行車上或走路時看書、躺著看書等,這些不好的用眼習慣都是導致近視的危險因素。

近視能不能治療?多少度才會遺傳?真相近視在這裏 真相3:近視度數超過600度要引起重視

吳京:許多家長發現小孩近視後過於緊張和焦慮,而有些家長卻對近視的危害認識不足,佩戴con時不想有眼乾或甚細菌感染之類不適問題,除了要注意隱形眼鏡本身乾淨程度,觸碰隱形眼鏡的手也應保持乾淨,也不要與他人交換con戴。 以至於未能有效地干預,使孩子的近視度數進一步加深。所以我們需要對近視的危害和防治有一個科學的認識。 首先,眼睛健康會受到嚴重威脅,近視會使自己孩子更容易出現視疲勞,在學習活動過程中更加容易導致眼睛幹澀、酸脹、疼痛,有的企業甚至可能出現注意力難以集中、記憶力下降,造成我們學習工作效率低下等;

其次,眼部會出現一些列的病理變化,近視度數超過600度(高度近視),高度近視常伴有夜間視力差、飛蚊症、漂浮物、閃光感等症狀,同時更容易出現併發症,譬如視網膜變性、裂孔,甚至引起出血和視網膜脫離,嚴重者可導致失明。 最後就是對於500度以內的大部分患者,眼底無明顯的病理改變,故對於輕中度的近視,家長們不必過於緊張,而對於高度近視的孩子,需要引起足夠的重視,定期去正規醫院檢查以便更有效的治療。







Publicerat klockan 12:21, den 4 november 2020
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孕期,我們教師可以同時通過進行除咗可以消毒,我仲強烈要求可以有埋哄乾功能。因為消毒完,哄乾埋就可以即刻整整齊齊咁,放返入奶樽 收納盒入面。集嬰兒包被與嬰兒睡袋於一身,手袖位置設有鈕扣,當寶寶睡覺時,可以扣上鈕扣,用作包被使用,大個咗可以露岀手仔當睡袋用。一系列的產檢來判斷寶寶發育發展情況,寶寶生下來後我們該怎麼能夠判斷寶寶發育的好壞呢?



有人該說了,那寶寶萬一是個“千年面癱臉”呢,這個可能性非常小哈。真正的“面癱臉”也是會被逗笑的,就看啥樣的笑點了。對於嬰幼兒來講,只要逗樂方法得當,正常的寶寶都會笑的,除咗可以消毒,我仲強烈要求可以有埋哄乾功能。因為消毒完,哄乾埋就可以即刻整整齊齊咁,放返入奶樽 收納盒入面。有的笑的咯咯響,有的是含蓄抿嘴笑,雖然方式不同,但都是會笑的。









Publicerat klockan 10:23, den 28 oktober 2020
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SEO bloggare delar samma kunskap och f?rdigheter

Bloggare f?r att inf?ra skrivning av mjuk text, b?r s?gas vara en kompetensflykt.SEO bloggare delar samma kunskap och f?rdigheter.Hur man skiljer p? inneh?ll, blir Baidu s ? kallade alternativa original, f?r mer trafik fr?n Baidu s tass.Det ?r n?dv?ndigt att analysera skriftligt.Innan artikeln b?rjar ?r det i grund och botten "hur man skriver en bra mjuk artikel". Inhemska bloggare ?r all a ansvariga f?r analysen och kommenterar inte om andra m?nniskors artiklar uppfyller behoven hos bloggare f?r n?rvarande, men de b?r l?ra sig av varandras styrkor och kompensera f?r sina svagheter.N?r det g?ller "relevansen" av inneh?llet anser jag att arméns SEO-skrivning inte kommer att avvika fr?n ?mnet, och de kan ocks? dela med sig av ett visst inneh?ll som gradvis beh?vs s ? l?nge det beaktas fullt ut.

Dessutom kan vi f?rest?lla oss vilken typ av industri anv?ndaren kommer att s ?ka efter denna titel?Det ?r m?jligt att f?rruttna och analysera med bloggare, eller vill g? direkt till falska originalverk, smickra hundratals platser och d?da dem, eller Xiaobai kan l?ra sig av det.F?r n?rvarande ignorerar vi anv?ndarnas motivation och analyserar problemen efter att ha klickat, det vill s ?ga hur man minskar sidans studshastighet och ?kar anv?ndarens PV.

"N?r det g?ller hur man opererar,Hjälp utländska handelsföretag att anpassaGoogle海外推广Planera att uppnå global marknadsföring utan att lämna hemmet b?rjade jag ocks? ta reda p? det fr?n Xiaobai."Enligt Zhu Daming, vad han har gjort ?r inneh?llet i ekonomiska recensioner, han ?r mycket noga med att h?mta heta platser. "Om en het punkt kommer ut, m?ste du f?lja upp omedelbart.Eftersom inneh?llet i v?r kategori inte ?r lika popul?rt som inneh?llet hos roliga bloggare och livsbloggare, ?r vi relativt missgynnade, och d?rf?r kan vi bara arbeta h?rt med att ?ka inneh?llet och hinna ifatt de heta punkterna.

N?r vi g?r ett bra jobb med titeln och inneh?llet kommer det att finnas kapital som kan optimeras, och det finns inget att s?ga om hur andra mjuka texter fungerar normalt.Efter textvisningen, inf?randet av bilder, pop-up-reklam och andra noteringar har kommit fram i tanken, den uppf?ljningswebbplatsen har objektiva trafikbes?kare, men det ?r om?jligt att ge oss problemet med effektiv omvandling, vi m?ste l?gga till n?gra marknadsf?ringsidéer.V?xelkursen f?r RMB ?r inte s? l?t t att tj?na. Om du inte har fysisk styrka, m?ste du anv?nda din hj?rna.Det ?r upp till dig att spela.Jag hoppas att denna artikel "hur man skriver en bra mjuk artikel" kan f? dig att t?nka, i st?llet f?r att begr?nsas av ett fast t?nkande, att bli en riktig SEOER med teknik och t?nkande!

Inneh?ll ?r k?rnan och sj?len i mjuk text, och det viktigaste ?r inneh?llet i mjuk text.V?rdefullt inneh?ll ?r inte bara ett n?dv?ndigt villkor f?r l?sarna att l?s a noggrant, utan ocks? n?dv?ndigt f?r att f?rmedla f?rfattarens idéer och maximera effekten av mjuk textmarknadsf?ring.F?rutom att vi ?r v?rdefulla och hj?lpsamma f?r l?sarna m?ste vi ocks? uppm?rksamma inneh?llets enkelhet och praktiska karakt?r.Vi skriver mjuka artiklar med marknadsf?ringseffekt, inte prosa, s? vi s?ker inte vacker retorik, inte alltf?r djup, tala inte som ord, s? l?nge l?sare kan f?rst?, k?nna sig anv?ndbara.

Publicerat klockan 11:32, den 16 oktober 2020
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat och taggat som kunskap,








一到這個冬天,大昌食品專門店的打邊爐海鮮,包括各款魚、蝦及貝類,鮮味海產配合打邊爐的香濃湯底,令人食指大動!立即網上選購心水食材及配料,足不出戶都可享受打邊爐之樂!很多傳統粵菜以及餐廳都能做打邊爐,只要支一個爐、一個鍋就行了,湯底是清水,食材是現成的,但你很難在北京烤鴨店吃到涮羊肉,很難在四川水煮魚店吃到喜歡麻辣火鍋。 這就是緣爐的個性。









Publicerat klockan 11:40, den 23 september 2020
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat och taggat som 海鮮,火鍋,



7月16日,上證綜合指數單日下跌4.5% ,導致下半年恒生綜合指數創下3.34% 的單日最大跌幅。因此,也由不少中小散戶還是不禁令人感歎:剛完開戶牛市就崩了?入市第二天就賠了,這一輪牛市要‘刹車’了嗎?




不過,正股資訊一覽專頁提供詳盡資訊,包括(1) 正股報價、(2) 技術圖表及(3) 相關窩輪(認購證/認沽證)及阿里巴巴牛熊證產品,讓投資者可即時關注港股最新走勢港股在最近幾天下跌A股市場的熱情潑投資者的一盆冷水。其中,7月16日,上證綜指出現“股災級”下跌,單日跌幅達4.5%,於2008年以來單日跌幅排名第31名。與此同時,香港的恒生綜合指數7月16日單日3.34%的跌幅,在單日跌幅以來的前68個2008年的排名。








Publicerat klockan 13:16, den 22 september 2020
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat och taggat som 市場,財經,





3、牛奶眼膜:第一冷牛奶放在冰箱裏,然後將棉片冷脫脂牛奶入侵後,敷在眼皮上,點解我咁呢款cream mask 推介 ?原因係佢係一款全方位麵膜,對付乾燥、皺紋、暗啞鬆弛肌特別有效。每天早晚一天兩次,每次10分鍾,可消除下眼袋。









Publicerat klockan 10:55, den 11 september 2020
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat och taggat som 除皺, 去皺,

As the pace of life accelerate

Do you have to take sleeping pills for insomnia?

As the pace of life accelerates, insomnia has become a "top priority" for many people. This should have been the moment to go to sleep. Many people turned over and over again, unable to sleep. In order to be able to sleep beautifully, many people will use sleeping pills to help sleep effect. Insomnia, we must eat sleeping pills?

Do you have to take sleeping pills for insomnia?

Insomnia, like fever, itself is not a disease, but a symptom, the important thing is to find the reasons behind insomnia, for the environment, emotions, diet, disease, medicine and other transient insomnia is a physiological response, do not have to be nervous , As long as the elimination of predisposing factors, sleep can be restored to normal, not necessarily taking sleeping pills.

In fact, some patients take sleeping pills to take effect, because of the side effects of drugs, often self-stop, so that recurrence of insomnia symptoms to be re-medication. In fact, the use of sleeping pills to improve sleep, it is best to continue taking a few days, so that the disorder has gradually returned to normal biological clock, and then gradually reduce the dose of sleeping pills, and then stop the drug, or do not want to go.

Side effects of sleeping pills

1, the dependence

Long-term use of sleeping pills sleeping people will have dependence on sleeping pills, the specific symptoms of sleep without sleep pills, a long time may lead to depression.

2, unresponsive

Long-term use of sleeping pills will make memory decline, the reaction becomes dull, older people prone to dementia.

3, convulsions

If sleep on sleeping pills for a long time, once stopped, there will be convulsions or tremors, which is dependent on the human body and habits of the body is particularly bad.

4, abnormal sleep

Sleeping pills can make people quickly fall asleep, but the quality of sleep is not high, nightmares may occur, early awakening, will be very sleepy during the day, the spirit of the physical and not very good.

What to eat good food insomnia

1, hot milk

We often say that having a cup of hot milk before going to sleep at night can help to sleep. Indeed, there are some amino acids and calcium components in the milk that can help calm people's nerves and help to fall asleep as soon as possible. Therefore, a cup of hot milk before going to sleep is necessary.

2, oats

Oats have a strong effect of promoting sleep, a small bowl of oatmeal will help you sleep soundly, eat oatmeal, sooner or later, each cup, but also can play a better effect of promoting sleep Oh!

3, whole wheat bread

Bread can also ease your insomnia, do you believe it? Facts have proved that wholemeal bread can help the body to promote sleep, so insomnia troubled female friends can add a bit of breakfast in the wholemeal bread, or eat a little supper, you can play a very good effect of promoting sleep Oh!

Publicerat klockan 11:53, den 25 januari 2018
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat

Mitt första blogginlägg

Det här är ditt första blogginlägg i din nya blogg. Du kan välja att antingen ta bort det här inlägget eller redigera det.

Välkommen till Blogaholic!

Publicerat klockan 12:14, den 28 april 2017
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Postat i kategorin Okategoriserat